Trauma has been a source of focus for several years, but more recently because of the links to sharp rises in both suicides and opiate addiction. A bulk of trauma research and solutions that apply to our work came from the Adverse Childhood Experiences, or ACE, study. Between 1995 and 1997, over 17,000 people conducted confidential surveys when they were completing physical exams. The Center for Disease Control (CDC) and Kaiser Permanente conducted the research, which can be viewed here. ACE is a term given to a general group of negative experiences, such as having a parent incarcerated, experienced abuse or lived with a problem drinker, etc. to anyone before age 18.
Adverse Childhood Experiences have shown to influence long-term health of individuals, families, and communities. See below for some of the long-term effects of having several adverse childhood experiences from the CDC's website (https://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/childabuseandneglect/acestudy/ace-graphics.html, 10/30/2019):
It's important to couple information about trauma and the ACEs Study with hints on how to build resiliency because stress is normal and even ACEs are common. While it was believed for several years that the mind was in a fixed state, unable to change past development into adulthood, it is now widely believed that it is malleable, based on new experiences affecting lifestyle, environment, and physiology.
The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) says that there are three common themes found in research that demonstrates effective ways to increase resilience in childhood: cognitive development/problem solving skills; self-regulation; and, relationships with caring adults.